Holocaust survivor Harry Fox was nine when the Nazis took over his town in central Poland. This short summary of his life describes life in a ghetto, as a slave labourer, in a succession of concentration camps, and on a death march. Harry Fox died in 2012.
Steven Frank was born in Amsterdam in the Netherlands. In 1940 when he was five years old the Nazis invaded and occupied the country. His life and that of his two brothers changed very quickly because they were Jewish. His parents were not religious and thought of their identity as Dutch (although his mother was from England), but to the Nazis that made no difference.
Albert Friedlander was 11 years old in 1938 and living in Berlin. On the night of 9-10 November, the Nazis organised a night of violence and destruction against Jewish buildings and properties. As a Jewish boy, Albert had distinct memories of that time.
Frank Foley who was born in 1884, worked for the Foreign Office and became Head of the British Passport Control Office in Germany. Foley was in fact Britain’s most senior spy in Berlin. During his time in Berlin, Foley is known to have saved an estimated 10,000 German Jews. This remarkable man also visited internment camps to get Jewish people out, hide them in his home, and helped forge passports.
This educational resource for secondary school aged students tells the story of Miep Gies, the woman who supported Anne Frank and her family when they were in hiding from the Nazis in Amsterdam.
Bea Green was born in Munich in 1924. When she was 8 years old, her father was brutally beaten and forced to march through the streets with a sign around his neck. In 1939, Bea came to England as one of the children on the Kindertransport and was lucky enough to be reunited with her parents again after the war. Bea has made England her home and to this day speaks to groups all around the country to raise awareness of the dangers of antisemitism (anti-Jewish hatred) and intolerance.
Lady Milena was born in Czechoslovakia in 1929. Her father was recommended to leave Czechoslovakia the day before the Nazis invaded because he was both Jewish and a supporter of an anti-Nazi author.
Paul Grüninger was a policeman and footballer in Switzerland who helped thousands of Austrian Jews fleeing persecution. He illegally allowed them to cross the border to Switzerland between August 1938 and April 1939. He was recognised as a Righteous Among the Nations in 1971, a year before his death.
This podcast is a recording of Holocaust survivor Kitty Hart-Moxon's speech from the UK commemoration event for Holocaust Memorial Day 2013, in which she spoke about her life story.
Hedy Klein was born in Oradea, in Romania, and was 16 when the Nazis entered her hometown, which had been absorbed into Hungary and renamed Nagyvarad. She was taken to Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp, and then worked as a slave labourer in a munitions factory. After the war, she left Romania illegally and went to Canada.