Ghettos were specially selected areas where Jews were forced to live; where they were segregated, controlled, and dehumanised.  Some had walls built around them, others were marked out by barbed wire. Food restrictions were introduced and terrible conditions led to hundreds of thousands dying from disease or malnutrition. Men, women and children were forced to leave their homes, taking only the possessions they could carry, and move into overcrowded houses and rooms, where their movement was strictly prohibited. Conditions in the ghettos were appalling, where families were crowded together without adequate supplies of food or water. Many people died from starvation, disease and casual executions carried out by the Nazis.

As the Final Solution was instigated, deportations to Nazi camps across Europe began. Freight and passenger trains were used for the deportations. No food or water was provided for those on the trains with little or no room to sit or lay down – those inside endured intense heat during the summer and freezing temperatures during the winter. Many of those packed onto these trains died on route to the camps through starvation or over-crowding. Photographs provided with thanks to the Wiener Library.