Following the genocide, in November 1994 the UN Security Council established the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, located in the city of Arusha in Tanzania. The Tribunal prosecutes people responsible for genocide and other serious violations of international humanitarian law committed in Rwanda in 1994.
As of March 2013 94 leaders have been indicted, 75 have been tried, and 46 convicted. 17 cases are currently on appeal. The Tribunal is now in its final stages, finishing what work remains before handing over to the UN’s International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals.
Trials have included the Jean Kambanda, Prime Minister during the Genocide, who pleaded guilty to genocide and is the only head of government ever convicted of genocide. He is serving a life prison sentence in Mali.
In 1998 Jean-Paul Akayesu, Mayor of Taba, was convicted of genocide and crimes against humanity. His conviction set a precedent that rape is a crime of genocide and a war crime.
In June 2011, Pauline Nyiramasuhuko – the former Family Affairs and Women’s Development Minister was sentenced to life imprisonment for her part in ordering and assisting massacres in Butare.
Lower-level militia members have been detained in Rwanda and there are ongoing prosecutions continuing. Several thousand genocidaires have been convicted in the Rwandan courts. Tens of thousands more have been tried under the gacaca system which relies upon local village elders passing judgement. Some survivors have criticised this system as it leaves witnesses unprotected and there are also human rights concerns that the accused will not face a fair trial. The gacaca system relies on voluntary confessions and apologies from the guilty parties.